The masculine/feminine dimension in culture

The late Geert Hofstede wrote,

Masculinity describes a society in which emotional gender roles are clearly distinct – men are supposed to be assertive, tough and focused on material success, women are supposed to be more modest, tender and concerned with the quality of life – versus Femininity, a society in which emotional gender roles overlap – both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life . . .The Masculinity/Femininity dimension is the only one of the four in which gender affects the scores: women on average score higher in Femininity than men

Lotta Stern pointed me to Hofstede’s work as relevant to my thoughts on emasculated culture. His work seems fascinating, and all of his cultural dimensions appear to be relevant to my distinction between the older culture and the newer culture. Here is his Wikipedia entry. Here is his web site, now maintained by Hofstede the younger.

Stern herself has written,

These differences between men and women in competitiveness, personality, IQ, and preferences are common findings in some parts of sociology and in neighboring fields. All of them are reported as stable results over time and contexts. Yet in sociological studies of labor market differences between men and women, they are ignored.

She points out that one can have a libertarian feminism that supports equal rights and opportunity for women without embracing the view that all inequalities in labor market outcomes between men and women ought to be eliminated.